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Pruning pear treePruning pear treePruning pear tree© VisionsPictures & Photography / Visions Pictures / BiosphotoJPG - RMSale prohibited in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein and the United Kingdom
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2486273

2486273

Pruning pear tree

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Cherry plantation with stretched hail protection during cherry harvest, Bavaria, Germany, EuropeCherry plantation with stretched hail protection during cherry harvest, Bavaria, Germany, EuropeCherry plantation with stretched hail protection during cherry harvest, Bavaria, Germany, Europe© Helmut Meyer zur Capellen / imageBROKER / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484940

2484940

Cherry plantation with stretched hail protection during cherry

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A living quarters module, secured to the end of a centrifuge boom, swings into the foreground while an unmanned cargo ship prepares to dock in the upper left. Both are falling toward the moon at a leisurely 1,500 miles per hour. On the upper right abutting the orange propellant tanks, is the blue glow of one of the cycler's four ion engines. These engines may be all that's required to maintain the long-term integrity of the cycler's orbit. . Studies have shown that human health can suffer in the absence of gravity. Physiological hazards include loss of bone mass and diminished cardiovascular performance. While regular exercise can mitigate microgravity's deleterious effects, it may be determined that the best therapy would be a simulated gravity environment. Unfortunately nature appears to offer few options for simulating gravity, however a technologically feasible solution would be the employment of a centrifuge. . A centrifuge is a mechanical device that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, resulting in a gravity-simulating force perpendicular to the axis. Small scale centrifuges are used on Earth to quickly separate substances of varying density. In the microgravity of space, a large centrifuge could be constructed, not to separate substances, but to simulate gravity for human occupants. In the image above envisions a centrifuge with two booms, each with a radius of 100 feet, and each secured to a living quarters module with accommodations for six. A rotation rate of two revolutions per minute would generate a force equal to one-sixth the gravitational force at the Earth's surface, which happens to be that of the moon's. . Given the enormous engineering challenges, it would have to be demonstrated that even a force of one-sixth the Earth's gravity would go a long way toward ensuring human health. (Of course, larger centrifuges have been envisioned, from the massive two-wheeled space station in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey, to a tethered version with a radius of a half-mile under consideration for Mars missions.). . While spinning a centrifuge at a faster rate would simulate a greater gravitational force, in this case the 100 foot radius would result in a force gradient that could cause its own physiological hazard, i.e., standing humans would experience a noticeably greater gravitational-like force at their feet than at their heads.A living quarters module, secured to the end of a centrifuge boom, swings into the foreground while an unmanned cargo ship prepares to dock in the upper left. Both are falling toward the moon at a leisurely 1,500 miles per hour. On the upper right abutting the orange propellant tanks, is the blue glow of one of the cycler's four ion engines. These engines may be all that's required to maintain the long-term integrity of the cycler's orbit. . Studies have shown that human health can suffer in the absence of gravity. Physiological hazards include loss of bone mass and diminished cardiovascular performance. While regular exercise can mitigate microgravity's deleterious effects, it may be determined that the best therapy would be a simulated gravity environment. Unfortunately nature appears to offer few options for simulating gravity, however a technologically feasible solution would be the employment of a centrifuge. . A centrifuge is a mechanical device that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, resulting in a gravity-simulating force perpendicular to the axis. Small scale centrifuges are used on Earth to quickly separate substances of varying density. In the microgravity of space, a large centrifuge could be constructed, not to separate substances, but to simulate gravity for human occupants. In the image above envisions a centrifuge with two booms, each with a radius of 100 feet, and each secured to a living quarters module with accommodations for six. A rotation rate of two revolutions per minute would generate a force equal to one-sixth the gravitational force at the Earth's surface, which happens to be that of the moon's. . Given the enormous engineering challenges, it would have to be demonstrated that even a force of one-sixth the Earth's gravity would go a long way toward ensuring human health. (Of course, larger centrifuges have been envisioned, from the massive two-wheeled space station in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey, to a tethered version with a radius of a half-mile under consideration for Mars missions.). . While spinning a centrifuge at a faster rate would simulate a greater gravitational force, in this case the 100 foot radius would result in a force gradient that could cause its own physiological hazard, i.e., standing humans would experience a noticeably greater gravitational-like force at their feet than at their heads.A living quarters module, secured to the end of a centrifuge boom, swings into the foreground while an unmanned cargo ship prepares to dock in the upper left. Both are falling toward the moon at a leisurely 1,500 miles per hour. On the upper right abutting the orange propellant tanks, is the blue glow of one of the cycler's four ion engines. These engines may be all that's required to maintain the long-term integrity of the cycler's orbit. . Studies have shown that human health can suffer in the absence of gravity. Physiological hazards include loss of bone mass and diminished cardiovascular performance. While regular exercise can mitigate microgravity's deleterious effects, it may be determined that the best therapy would be a simulated gravity environment. Unfortunately nature appears to offer few options for simulating gravity, however a technologically feasible solution would be the employment of a centrifuge. . A centrifuge is a mechanical device that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, resulting in a gravity-simulating force perpendicular to the axis. Small scale centrifuges are used on Earth to quickly separate substances of varying density. In the microgravity of space, a large centrifuge could be constructed, not to separate substances, but to simulate gravity for human occupants. In the image above envisions a centrifuge with two booms, each with a radius of 100 feet, and each secured to a living quarters module with accommodations for six. A rotation rate of two revolutions per minute would generate a force equal to one-sixth the gravitational force at the Earth's surface, which happens to be that of the moon's. . Given the enormous engineering challenges, it would have to be demonstrated that even a force of one-sixth the Earth's gravity would go a long way toward ensuring human health. (Of course, larger centrifuges have been envisioned, from the massive two-wheeled space station in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey, to a tethered version with a radius of a half-mile under consideration for Mars missions.). . While spinning a centrifuge at a faster rate would simulate a greater gravitational force, in this case the 100 foot radius would result in a force gradient that could cause its own physiological hazard, i.e., standing humans would experience a noticeably greater gravitational-like force at their feet than at their heads.© Walter Myers / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484617

2484617

A living quarters module, secured to the end of a centrifuge

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An astrogeologist in a spacesuit and manned maneuvering unit (MMU) makes the first human contact with Mars' asteroid-like moon Phobos. On the upper right is another free-ranging astrogeologist descending toward the surface. On the left at a distance of several hundred yards is an Orion-class command module. The command module has ferried the astrogeologists to Phobos from their living accommodations in Mars orbit. At 5,800 miles away, Mars itself looms large, nearly filling the entire sky. Phobos’ gravity is so low that its surface could be explored like scuba divers floating over the ocean’s bottom.An astrogeologist in a spacesuit and manned maneuvering unit (MMU) makes the first human contact with Mars' asteroid-like moon Phobos. On the upper right is another free-ranging astrogeologist descending toward the surface. On the left at a distance of several hundred yards is an Orion-class command module. The command module has ferried the astrogeologists to Phobos from their living accommodations in Mars orbit. At 5,800 miles away, Mars itself looms large, nearly filling the entire sky. Phobos’ gravity is so low that its surface could be explored like scuba divers floating over the ocean’s bottom.An astrogeologist in a spacesuit and manned maneuvering unit (MMU) makes the first human contact with Mars' asteroid-like moon Phobos. On the upper right is another free-ranging astrogeologist descending toward the surface. On the left at a distance of several hundred yards is an Orion-class command module. The command module has ferried the astrogeologists to Phobos from their living accommodations in Mars orbit. At 5,800 miles away, Mars itself looms large, nearly filling the entire sky. Phobos’ gravity is so low that its surface could be explored like scuba divers floating over the ocean’s bottom.© Walter Myers / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484557

2484557

An astrogeologist in a spacesuit and manned maneuvering unit

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Artist's concept of a space tug docked with a lunar lander. With the space tug firmly docked with the lunar lander, the two will function as a single spacecraft for the duration of a 3-day trip to the moon. The pair would likely spend some time in Earth orbit prior to departure, checking systems and preparing the lander for its eventual journey to the Moon's surface. The lunar lander pictured here has capacity for a crew of four plus cargo. The space tug itself could have a crew of two, making the total crew capacity of the joined spacecraft about the same as today's Space Shuttle.Artist's concept of a space tug docked with a lunar lander. With the space tug firmly docked with the lunar lander, the two will function as a single spacecraft for the duration of a 3-day trip to the moon. The pair would likely spend some time in Earth orbit prior to departure, checking systems and preparing the lander for its eventual journey to the Moon's surface. The lunar lander pictured here has capacity for a crew of four plus cargo. The space tug itself could have a crew of two, making the total crew capacity of the joined spacecraft about the same as today's Space Shuttle.Artist's concept of a space tug docked with a lunar lander. With the space tug firmly docked with the lunar lander, the two will function as a single spacecraft for the duration of a 3-day trip to the moon. The pair would likely spend some time in Earth orbit prior to departure, checking systems and preparing the lander for its eventual journey to the Moon's surface. The lunar lander pictured here has capacity for a crew of four plus cargo. The space tug itself could have a crew of two, making the total crew capacity of the joined spacecraft about the same as today's Space Shuttle.© Walter Myers / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484538

2484538

Artist's concept of a space tug docked with a lunar lander. With

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A titanian explorer prepares to release a weather balloon while another directs a flood lamp to illuminate the activity. On the left is a supply cart with a portable weather station, featuring an interactive control panel designed to accommodate hands enclosed in thick gloves. All exposed hardware would have to function at temperatures of minus 300° F and below. . With an atmosphere 10 times denser than the Earth's, weather would be of keen interest to Titan's visitors. High in Titan's atmosphere wind velocities in excess of 400 mph have been detected. While not much is known about winds and weather at Titan's surface, terrain features resembling dune fields have been observed, suggesting surface winds have occurred at some locations. Fogs of methane gas would likely be present at the surface as well.A titanian explorer prepares to release a weather balloon while another directs a flood lamp to illuminate the activity. On the left is a supply cart with a portable weather station, featuring an interactive control panel designed to accommodate hands enclosed in thick gloves. All exposed hardware would have to function at temperatures of minus 300° F and below. . With an atmosphere 10 times denser than the Earth's, weather would be of keen interest to Titan's visitors. High in Titan's atmosphere wind velocities in excess of 400 mph have been detected. While not much is known about winds and weather at Titan's surface, terrain features resembling dune fields have been observed, suggesting surface winds have occurred at some locations. Fogs of methane gas would likely be present at the surface as well.A titanian explorer prepares to release a weather balloon while another directs a flood lamp to illuminate the activity. On the left is a supply cart with a portable weather station, featuring an interactive control panel designed to accommodate hands enclosed in thick gloves. All exposed hardware would have to function at temperatures of minus 300° F and below. . With an atmosphere 10 times denser than the Earth's, weather would be of keen interest to Titan's visitors. High in Titan's atmosphere wind velocities in excess of 400 mph have been detected. While not much is known about winds and weather at Titan's surface, terrain features resembling dune fields have been observed, suggesting surface winds have occurred at some locations. Fogs of methane gas would likely be present at the surface as well.© Walter Myers / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484536

2484536

A titanian explorer prepares to release a weather balloon while

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Artist's concept of astronauts exploring the surface of Saturn's moon Titan. Titan's first human visitors are protected by thick suits and helmets to shield them from the extreme cold, and possibly toxic compounds such as hydrogen cyanide. They carry their own oxygen as Titan's atmosphere is primarily nitrogen with lesser amounts of argon, methane and other gases. Each explorer also carries head lights attached to their helmets to help them navigate a terrain that receives only 1/1000th the Sun's illumination on the Earth; while this means that noon on Titan would appear relatively dim, it would yet be over 300 times brighter than the Earth under a full moon. . Beneath Titan's 350 miles of atmosphere, intrepid explorers would likely find a dark, forbidding landscape of rock, ice, and possibly tarry layers of hydrocarbons and lakes of liquid ethane and/or methane (AKA natural gas). The Surface temperature would be around minus 300° F, cold enough to freeze exposed human tissue within seconds. There would be no oxygen to breathe, and any water to be found would be as hard and dense as granite. Despite these harsh conditions, Titan could yet yield secrets regarding the origin of life itself as it is believed that, with the exception of the extreme cold, Titan resembles the primordial Earth at the time living organisms first appeared. . Perhaps some day in the far future humans will set foot on Saturn's mysterious moon Titan, one of the most interesting worlds in the Solar System. Larger than the planet Mercury, Earth's moon, and the dwarf planet Pluto, and second only in size to Jupiter's satellite Ganymede, Titan is the only known extraterrestrial world with a dense atmosphere that realistically could be visited by humans. A visit to Titan would require a space journey of a year or more and traverse over 700 million miles. . . 
Artist's concept of astronauts exploring the surface of Saturn's moon Titan. Titan's first human visitors are protected by thick suits and helmets to shield them from the extreme cold, and possibly toxic compounds such as hydrogen cyanide. They carry their own oxygen as Titan's atmosphere is primarily nitrogen with lesser amounts of argon, methane and other gases. Each explorer also carries head lights attached to their helmets to help them navigate a terrain that receives only 1/1000th the Sun's illumination on the Earth; while this means that noon on Titan would appear relatively dim, it would yet be over 300 times brighter than the Earth under a full moon. . Beneath Titan's 350 miles of atmosphere, intrepid explorers would likely find a dark, forbidding landscape of rock, ice, and possibly tarry layers of hydrocarbons and lakes of liquid ethane and/or methane (AKA natural gas). The Surface temperature would be around minus 300° F, cold enough to freeze exposed human tissue within seconds. There would be no oxygen to breathe, and any water to be found would be as hard and dense as granite. Despite these harsh conditions, Titan could yet yield secrets regarding the origin of life itself as it is believed that, with the exception of the extreme cold, Titan resembles the primordial Earth at the time living organisms first appeared. . Perhaps some day in the far future humans will set foot on Saturn's mysterious moon Titan, one of the most interesting worlds in the Solar System. Larger than the planet Mercury, Earth's moon, and the dwarf planet Pluto, and second only in size to Jupiter's satellite Ganymede, Titan is the only known extraterrestrial world with a dense atmosphere that realistically could be visited by humans. A visit to Titan would require a space journey of a year or more and traverse over 700 million miles. . . Artist's concept of astronauts exploring the surface of Saturn's moon Titan. Titan's first human visitors are protected by thick suits and helmets to shield them from the extreme cold, and possibly toxic compounds such as hydrogen cyanide. They carry their own oxygen as Titan's atmosphere is primarily nitrogen with lesser amounts of argon, methane and other gases. Each explorer also carries head lights attached to their helmets to help them navigate a terrain that receives only 1/1000th the Sun's illumination on the Earth; while this means that noon on Titan would appear relatively dim, it would yet be over 300 times brighter than the Earth under a full moon. . Beneath Titan's 350 miles of atmosphere, intrepid explorers would likely find a dark, forbidding landscape of rock, ice, and possibly tarry layers of hydrocarbons and lakes of liquid ethane and/or methane (AKA natural gas). The Surface temperature would be around minus 300° F, cold enough to freeze exposed human tissue within seconds. There would be no oxygen to breathe, and any water to be found would be as hard and dense as granite. Despite these harsh conditions, Titan could yet yield secrets regarding the origin of life itself as it is believed that, with the exception of the extreme cold, Titan resembles the primordial Earth at the time living organisms first appeared. . Perhaps some day in the far future humans will set foot on Saturn's mysterious moon Titan, one of the most interesting worlds in the Solar System. Larger than the planet Mercury, Earth's moon, and the dwarf planet Pluto, and second only in size to Jupiter's satellite Ganymede, Titan is the only known extraterrestrial world with a dense atmosphere that realistically could be visited by humans. A visit to Titan would require a space journey of a year or more and traverse over 700 million miles. . . © Walter Myers / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484532

2484532

Artist's concept of astronauts exploring the surface of Saturn's

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Illustration of astronauts setting up a base on the Martian surface around their lander vehicle. The first human visitors to Mars would face an environment nearly as hostile as the Earth's Moon. While Mars has an atmosphere, it contains no breathable oxygen and is so thin that the surface air pressure is about the same as the Earth's 18 miles above sea level. To venture outside, humans would need hardy suits that would supply pressure, oxygen, moisture, warmth, and insulate them from the fine martian dust that may be both abrasive and chemically reactive. Even with these precautions, humans would still be vulnerable to radiation from solar storms and the continual rain of interstellar cosmic rays.Illustration of astronauts setting up a base on the Martian surface around their lander vehicle. The first human visitors to Mars would face an environment nearly as hostile as the Earth's Moon. While Mars has an atmosphere, it contains no breathable oxygen and is so thin that the surface air pressure is about the same as the Earth's 18 miles above sea level. To venture outside, humans would need hardy suits that would supply pressure, oxygen, moisture, warmth, and insulate them from the fine martian dust that may be both abrasive and chemically reactive. Even with these precautions, humans would still be vulnerable to radiation from solar storms and the continual rain of interstellar cosmic rays.Illustration of astronauts setting up a base on the Martian surface around their lander vehicle. The first human visitors to Mars would face an environment nearly as hostile as the Earth's Moon. While Mars has an atmosphere, it contains no breathable oxygen and is so thin that the surface air pressure is about the same as the Earth's 18 miles above sea level. To venture outside, humans would need hardy suits that would supply pressure, oxygen, moisture, warmth, and insulate them from the fine martian dust that may be both abrasive and chemically reactive. Even with these precautions, humans would still be vulnerable to radiation from solar storms and the continual rain of interstellar cosmic rays.© Walter Myers / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484495

2484495

Illustration of astronauts setting up a base on the Martian

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Illustration of a lunar tug with an attached lunar lander propelling itself into Earth orbit. Following a powerful burst from its primary thruster, a trans-moon space tug accelerates itself and the attached lunar lander into a much larger Earth orbit that will intercept the moon in about three days.Illustration of a lunar tug with an attached lunar lander propelling itself into Earth orbit. Following a powerful burst from its primary thruster, a trans-moon space tug accelerates itself and the attached lunar lander into a much larger Earth orbit that will intercept the moon in about three days.Illustration of a lunar tug with an attached lunar lander propelling itself into Earth orbit. Following a powerful burst from its primary thruster, a trans-moon space tug accelerates itself and the attached lunar lander into a much larger Earth orbit that will intercept the moon in about three days.© Walter Myers / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484481

2484481

Illustration of a lunar tug with an attached lunar lander

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A dedicated lunar shuttle descends toward a manned outpost on the Moon's southern hemisphere.A dedicated lunar shuttle descends toward a manned outpost on the Moon's southern hemisphere.A dedicated lunar shuttle descends toward a manned outpost on the Moon's southern hemisphere.© Walter Myers / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484479

2484479

A dedicated lunar shuttle descends toward a manned outpost on the

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A lunar lander begins its descent to the moon's surface from an altitude of 40,000 feet.A lunar lander begins its descent to the moon's surface from an altitude of 40,000 feet.A lunar lander begins its descent to the moon's surface from an altitude of 40,000 feet.© Walter Myers / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484478

2484478

A lunar lander begins its descent to the moon's surface from an

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A lunar cycler rounds the south pole of the Earth near perigee, its closest approach to the Earth, while a trailing future generation space shuttle prepares for a rendezvous. Once a lunar cycler has been propelled into its elliptical Earth/Moon orbit, it would require relatively little fuel over the ensuing years to maintain its orbit. . One thing to note about a lunar cycler is that while it does continually orbit between the Earth and Moon, it is not a tug, i.e., the cycler does not add any momentum to a docking space shuttle nor to any other craft that connects to it. Any ship that docks with the cycler must itself supply the initial energy required to reach an orbit matching the cycler's. What the cycler offers is a permanent transfer point for personnel and supplies and better accommodations for the weeklong journey to the Moon.A lunar cycler rounds the south pole of the Earth near perigee, its closest approach to the Earth, while a trailing future generation space shuttle prepares for a rendezvous. Once a lunar cycler has been propelled into its elliptical Earth/Moon orbit, it would require relatively little fuel over the ensuing years to maintain its orbit. . One thing to note about a lunar cycler is that while it does continually orbit between the Earth and Moon, it is not a tug, i.e., the cycler does not add any momentum to a docking space shuttle nor to any other craft that connects to it. Any ship that docks with the cycler must itself supply the initial energy required to reach an orbit matching the cycler's. What the cycler offers is a permanent transfer point for personnel and supplies and better accommodations for the weeklong journey to the Moon.A lunar cycler rounds the south pole of the Earth near perigee, its closest approach to the Earth, while a trailing future generation space shuttle prepares for a rendezvous. Once a lunar cycler has been propelled into its elliptical Earth/Moon orbit, it would require relatively little fuel over the ensuing years to maintain its orbit. . One thing to note about a lunar cycler is that while it does continually orbit between the Earth and Moon, it is not a tug, i.e., the cycler does not add any momentum to a docking space shuttle nor to any other craft that connects to it. Any ship that docks with the cycler must itself supply the initial energy required to reach an orbit matching the cycler's. What the cycler offers is a permanent transfer point for personnel and supplies and better accommodations for the weeklong journey to the Moon.© Walter Myers / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484477

2484477

A lunar cycler rounds the south pole of the Earth near perigee,

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A lunar cycler has reached its furthest orbital point from the Earth, the apogee, and is rounding the far side of the Moon to begin its fall back toward Earth. At apogee the lunar cycler is about 300 thousand miles from the Earth and 50 thousand miles beyond the orbit of the Moon (further from Earth than any human has ventured yet). Based upon what may be technologically feasible within the next 75 years, this is a suggestion of what a lunar cycler might one day look like. This cycler would be 200 feet long (about the height of a 20-story building) and accommodate 12 passengers and crew. A 200 foot centrifuge bisects the cycler tower and provides artificial gravity for the wayfarers. . If frequent manned trips to the Moon become a reality, the earlier throw-away technologies of the Apollo lunar missions will be impractical for the long term. More efficient and reusable systems will need to be developed in order to minimize the labor and resources required for these extraordinary voyages. . A journey to the Moon can be broken down into three basic tasks: transfer between the Earth's surface and Earth orbit, transfer between Earth orbit and lunar orbit, and transfer between lunar orbit and the Moon's surface. While the simplest solution may be a single vehicle that could do all three, no technology today or in the foreseeable future can meet all these needs. One solution would be to dedicate separate vehicles for each of the three tasks. A reusable space shuttle would lift explorers off the Earth's surface, a dedicated and reusable lunar shuttle would deliver explorers to the Moon's surface and back, and in between there would be a kind of orbital way station. One such way station is known as an orbital cycler. . An orbital cycler is a vehicle that's in a permanent orbit around two celestial masses. In the case of a lunar cycler, the orbit would encompass both the Earth and the Moon. One lunar cycler proposal would place the cycler in a highly elliptical Earth/Moon orbit. The lunar cycler would complete an orbit every two weeks, and make a close approach to the Moon every other orbit. The cycler journey from the Earth to the Moon would take about a week. 
A lunar cycler has reached its furthest orbital point from the Earth, the apogee, and is rounding the far side of the Moon to begin its fall back toward Earth. At apogee the lunar cycler is about 300 thousand miles from the Earth and 50 thousand miles beyond the orbit of the Moon (further from Earth than any human has ventured yet). Based upon what may be technologically feasible within the next 75 years, this is a suggestion of what a lunar cycler might one day look like. This cycler would be 200 feet long (about the height of a 20-story building) and accommodate 12 passengers and crew. A 200 foot centrifuge bisects the cycler tower and provides artificial gravity for the wayfarers. . If frequent manned trips to the Moon become a reality, the earlier throw-away technologies of the Apollo lunar missions will be impractical for the long term. More efficient and reusable systems will need to be developed in order to minimize the labor and resources required for these extraordinary voyages. . A journey to the Moon can be broken down into three basic tasks: transfer between the Earth's surface and Earth orbit, transfer between Earth orbit and lunar orbit, and transfer between lunar orbit and the Moon's surface. While the simplest solution may be a single vehicle that could do all three, no technology today or in the foreseeable future can meet all these needs. One solution would be to dedicate separate vehicles for each of the three tasks. A reusable space shuttle would lift explorers off the Earth's surface, a dedicated and reusable lunar shuttle would deliver explorers to the Moon's surface and back, and in between there would be a kind of orbital way station. One such way station is known as an orbital cycler. . An orbital cycler is a vehicle that's in a permanent orbit around two celestial masses. In the case of a lunar cycler, the orbit would encompass both the Earth and the Moon. One lunar cycler proposal would place the cycler in a highly elliptical Earth/Moon orbit. The lunar cycler would complete an orbit every two weeks, and make a close approach to the Moon every other orbit. The cycler journey from the Earth to the Moon would take about a week. A lunar cycler has reached its furthest orbital point from the Earth, the apogee, and is rounding the far side of the Moon to begin its fall back toward Earth. At apogee the lunar cycler is about 300 thousand miles from the Earth and 50 thousand miles beyond the orbit of the Moon (further from Earth than any human has ventured yet). Based upon what may be technologically feasible within the next 75 years, this is a suggestion of what a lunar cycler might one day look like. This cycler would be 200 feet long (about the height of a 20-story building) and accommodate 12 passengers and crew. A 200 foot centrifuge bisects the cycler tower and provides artificial gravity for the wayfarers. . If frequent manned trips to the Moon become a reality, the earlier throw-away technologies of the Apollo lunar missions will be impractical for the long term. More efficient and reusable systems will need to be developed in order to minimize the labor and resources required for these extraordinary voyages. . A journey to the Moon can be broken down into three basic tasks: transfer between the Earth's surface and Earth orbit, transfer between Earth orbit and lunar orbit, and transfer between lunar orbit and the Moon's surface. While the simplest solution may be a single vehicle that could do all three, no technology today or in the foreseeable future can meet all these needs. One solution would be to dedicate separate vehicles for each of the three tasks. A reusable space shuttle would lift explorers off the Earth's surface, a dedicated and reusable lunar shuttle would deliver explorers to the Moon's surface and back, and in between there would be a kind of orbital way station. One such way station is known as an orbital cycler. . An orbital cycler is a vehicle that's in a permanent orbit around two celestial masses. In the case of a lunar cycler, the orbit would encompass both the Earth and the Moon. One lunar cycler proposal would place the cycler in a highly elliptical Earth/Moon orbit. The lunar cycler would complete an orbit every two weeks, and make a close approach to the Moon every other orbit. The cycler journey from the Earth to the Moon would take about a week. © Walter Myers / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484476

2484476

A lunar cycler has reached its furthest orbital point from the

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3D rendering of a planet Earth golf ball isolated on white background.3D rendering of a planet Earth golf ball isolated on white background.3D rendering of a planet Earth golf ball isolated on white background.© Leonello Calvetti / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484363

2484363

3D rendering of a planet Earth golf ball isolated on white

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NASA's Curiosity rover samples a rock on the floor of Gale Crater.NASA's Curiosity rover samples a rock on the floor of Gale Crater.NASA's Curiosity rover samples a rock on the floor of Gale Crater.© Steven Hobbs / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484208

2484208

NASA's Curiosity rover samples a rock on the floor of Gale Crater.

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A lone astronaut drills into the regolith of Gale Crater with only a passing dust devil as company. The astronaut's hab can be seen in the distance and is dwarfed by the crater's 5km high central mound.A lone astronaut drills into the regolith of Gale Crater with only a passing dust devil as company. The astronaut's hab can be seen in the distance and is dwarfed by the crater's 5km high central mound.A lone astronaut drills into the regolith of Gale Crater with only a passing dust devil as company. The astronaut's hab can be seen in the distance and is dwarfed by the crater's 5km high central mound.© Steven Hobbs / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2484187

2484187

A lone astronaut drills into the regolith of Gale Crater with

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A diagram showing how to build a projector that will allow safe viewing of the Sun.A diagram showing how to build a projector that will allow safe viewing of the Sun.A diagram showing how to build a projector that will allow safe viewing of the Sun.© Ron Miller / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2483985

2483985

A diagram showing how to build a projector that will allow safe

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Inside view of the 60-inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, California, USA.Inside view of the 60-inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, California, USA.Inside view of the 60-inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, California, USA.© Jeff Dai / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2482975

2482975

Inside view of the 60-inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory,

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Inside view of a 60-inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, California, USA.Inside view of a 60-inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, California, USA.Inside view of a 60-inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, California, USA.© Jeff Dai / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2482950

2482950

Inside view of a 60-inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory,

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Night adventure with a camera, tripod and bicycle at Yamdrok Lake, Tibet, China, in a full moon night.Night adventure with a camera, tripod and bicycle at Yamdrok Lake, Tibet, China, in a full moon night.Night adventure with a camera, tripod and bicycle at Yamdrok Lake, Tibet, China, in a full moon night.© Jeff Dai / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2482840

2482840

Night adventure with a camera, tripod and bicycle at Yamdrok

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A rare aurora display over Okalahoma during the Okie-Tex Star Party.A rare aurora display over Okalahoma during the Okie-Tex Star Party.A rare aurora display over Okalahoma during the Okie-Tex Star Party.© John Davis / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2482661

2482661

A rare aurora display over Okalahoma during the Okie-Tex Star

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An astronomer peers through a telescope at the Orion region of the sky through thin clouds near Crowell, Texas.An astronomer peers through a telescope at the Orion region of the sky through thin clouds near Crowell, Texas.An astronomer peers through a telescope at the Orion region of the sky through thin clouds near Crowell, Texas.© John Davis / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2482654

2482654

An astronomer peers through a telescope at the Orion region of

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A domed observatory is open for business as a refractor telescope surveys the heavens, Crowell, Texas.A domed observatory is open for business as a refractor telescope surveys the heavens, Crowell, Texas.A domed observatory is open for business as a refractor telescope surveys the heavens, Crowell, Texas.© John Davis / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2482644

2482644

A domed observatory is open for business as a refractor telescope

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As a wildfire burns dangerously close, the astronomers at the McDonald Observatory in Fort Davis, Texas continue to work through the night.As a wildfire burns dangerously close, the astronomers at the McDonald Observatory in Fort Davis, Texas continue to work through the night.As a wildfire burns dangerously close, the astronomers at the McDonald Observatory in Fort Davis, Texas continue to work through the night.© John Davis / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2482634

2482634

As a wildfire burns dangerously close, the astronomers at the

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Amateur astronomers become active on a clear night at a star party in Crowell, Texas.Amateur astronomers become active on a clear night at a star party in Crowell, Texas.Amateur astronomers become active on a clear night at a star party in Crowell, Texas.© John Davis / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2482629

2482629

Amateur astronomers become active on a clear night at a star

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Inside the observatory, an astronomer makes observations with a large refractor telescope at the 3RF astronomy campus in Texas.Inside the observatory, an astronomer makes observations with a large refractor telescope at the 3RF astronomy campus in Texas.Inside the observatory, an astronomer makes observations with a large refractor telescope at the 3RF astronomy campus in Texas.© John Davis / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2482628

2482628

Inside the observatory, an astronomer makes observations with a

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Abandoned farm equipment against a backdrop of equatorial star trails at a location high in the La Sal       Mountains Near Moab, UtahAbandoned farm equipment against a backdrop of equatorial star trails at a location high in the La Sal       Mountains Near Moab, UtahAbandoned farm equipment against a backdrop of equatorial star trails at a location high in the La Sal       Mountains Near Moab, Utah© Dan Barr / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2482032

2482032

Abandoned farm equipment against a backdrop of equatorial star

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Astrophotography setup with the moon and the Milky Way in the background, Doyle, Argentina.Astrophotography setup with the moon and the Milky Way in the background, Doyle, Argentina.Astrophotography setup with the moon and the Milky Way in the background, Doyle, Argentina.© Luis Argerich / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2481910

2481910

Astrophotography setup with the moon and the Milky Way in the

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Astrophotography setup with the moon and the Milky Way in the background, Doyle, Argentina.Astrophotography setup with the moon and the Milky Way in the background, Doyle, Argentina.Astrophotography setup with the moon and the Milky Way in the background, Doyle, Argentina.© Luis Argerich / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2481909

2481909

Astrophotography setup with the moon and the Milky Way in the

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February 27, 2020 - An astronomer looking at the waxing crescent moon near Venus, standing beside the Celestron SkyMaster 15x70 Pro binoculars on the Sky-Watcher AZ5 mount.February 27, 2020 - An astronomer looking at the waxing crescent moon near Venus, standing beside the Celestron SkyMaster 15x70 Pro binoculars on the Sky-Watcher AZ5 mount.February 27, 2020 - An astronomer looking at the waxing crescent moon near Venus, standing beside the Celestron SkyMaster 15x70 Pro binoculars on the Sky-Watcher AZ5 mount.© Alan Dyer / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2481645

2481645

February 27, 2020 - An astronomer looking at the waxing crescent

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January 9, 2020 - Astronomer observing Venus in clouds and in the moonlight. Equipment used is the Explore Scientific 80mm refractor on the Twilight Nano alt-az mount.January 9, 2020 - Astronomer observing Venus in clouds and in the moonlight. Equipment used is the Explore Scientific 80mm refractor on the Twilight Nano alt-az mount.January 9, 2020 - Astronomer observing Venus in clouds and in the moonlight. Equipment used is the Explore Scientific 80mm refractor on the Twilight Nano alt-az mount.© Alan Dyer / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2481634

2481634

January 9, 2020 - Astronomer observing Venus in clouds and in the

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The late-night spring Milky Way from a rural backyard in Alberta, Canada, with the waxing moon just setting and lighting the landscape and sky. Jupiter (brightest) and Saturn to the east (left) are just rising together at left, east of the Milky Way. West of the galactic centre at right is red Antares in Scorpius. The Small Sagittarius and Scutum starclouds are prominent at centre, with their various Messier nebulas and star clusters visible.
The late-night spring Milky Way from a rural backyard in Alberta, Canada, with the waxing moon just setting and lighting the landscape and sky. Jupiter (brightest) and Saturn to the east (left) are just rising together at left, east of the Milky Way. West of the galactic centre at right is red Antares in Scorpius. The Small Sagittarius and Scutum starclouds are prominent at centre, with their various Messier nebulas and star clusters visible. The late-night spring Milky Way from a rural backyard in Alberta, Canada, with the waxing moon just setting and lighting the landscape and sky. Jupiter (brightest) and Saturn to the east (left) are just rising together at left, east of the Milky Way. West of the galactic centre at right is red Antares in Scorpius. The Small Sagittarius and Scutum starclouds are prominent at centre, with their various Messier nebulas and star clusters visible. © Alan Dyer / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2481537

2481537

The late-night spring Milky Way from a rural backyard in Alberta,

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Astrophotographer aiming an 80mm refractor at the Milky Way with its laser pointer finder showing the way. Aiming at M11 in Scutum.
Astrophotographer aiming an 80mm refractor at the Milky Way with its laser pointer finder showing the way. Aiming at M11 in Scutum. Astrophotographer aiming an 80mm refractor at the Milky Way with its laser pointer finder showing the way. Aiming at M11 in Scutum. © Alan Dyer / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2481397

2481397

Astrophotographer aiming an 80mm refractor at the Milky Way with

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June 24, 2014 - Moon and Venus in conjunction at dawn, Alberta, Canada.June 24, 2014 - Moon and Venus in conjunction at dawn, Alberta, Canada.June 24, 2014 - Moon and Venus in conjunction at dawn, Alberta, Canada.© Alan Dyer / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2480928

2480928

June 24, 2014 - Moon and Venus in conjunction at dawn, Alberta,

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The exposed bones of a Triceratops on a western landscape with it's apparition appearing in the clouds.The exposed bones of a Triceratops on a western landscape with it's apparition appearing in the clouds.The exposed bones of a Triceratops on a western landscape with it's apparition appearing in the clouds.© Jerry LoFaro / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2476599

2476599

The exposed bones of a Triceratops on a western landscape with

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Medical equipment at a hospital in the Central African Republic.Medical equipment at a hospital in the Central African Republic.Medical equipment at a hospital in the Central African Republic.© VWPics / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2476176

2476176

Medical equipment at a hospital in the Central African Republic.

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Detail of human knee showing insertion of arthroscopic instruments.Detail of human knee showing insertion of arthroscopic instruments.Detail of human knee showing insertion of arthroscopic instruments.© Elise Walmsley-MacWha / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2475581

2475581

Detail of human knee showing insertion of arthroscopic

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Detail of human knee showing arthroscopic surgical proceedures.Detail of human knee showing arthroscopic surgical proceedures.Detail of human knee showing arthroscopic surgical proceedures.© Elise Walmsley-MacWha / Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2475580

2475580

Detail of human knee showing arthroscopic surgical proceedures.

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Medical illustration of a syringe.Medical illustration of a syringe.Medical illustration of a syringe.© Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2475432

2475432

Medical illustration of a syringe.

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Image of stethoscope.Image of stethoscope.Image of stethoscope.© Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2475020

2475020

Image of stethoscope.

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Syringe used in medical care.Syringe used in medical care.Syringe used in medical care.© Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2474963

2474963

Syringe used in medical care.

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Stethoscope illustration.Stethoscope illustration.Stethoscope illustration.© Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2474962

2474962

Stethoscope illustration.

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A sheath device used for access and bloodless exchange of guide wires and catheters.
A sheath device used for access and bloodless exchange of guide wires and catheters. A sheath device used for access and bloodless exchange of guide wires and catheters. © Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2474961

2474961

A sheath device used for access and bloodless exchange of guide

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Surgical scissors.Surgical scissors.Surgical scissors.© Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2474960

2474960

Surgical scissors.

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Hospital bed used in occupational therapy for patient for rest.Hospital bed used in occupational therapy for patient for rest.Hospital bed used in occupational therapy for patient for rest.© Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2474959

2474959

Hospital bed used in occupational therapy for patient for rest.

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Illustration of a reflex hammer. A reflex hammer is a medical instrument used by physicians to test deep tendon reflexes.Illustration of a reflex hammer. A reflex hammer is a medical instrument used by physicians to test deep tendon reflexes.Illustration of a reflex hammer. A reflex hammer is a medical instrument used by physicians to test deep tendon reflexes.© Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2474958

2474958

Illustration of a reflex hammer. A reflex hammer is a medical

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Illustration of a hemostat. A hemostat is a surgical tool used to compress or treat bleeding vessels in order to arrest hemorrhage.Illustration of a hemostat. A hemostat is a surgical tool used to compress or treat bleeding vessels in order to arrest hemorrhage.Illustration of a hemostat. A hemostat is a surgical tool used to compress or treat bleeding vessels in order to arrest hemorrhage.© Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2474957

2474957

Illustration of a hemostat. A hemostat is a surgical tool used to

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Illustration of forceps. Forceps is an instrument for grasping, holding firmly, or exerting traction upon objects especially for delicate operations as by surgeons, obstetricians, or dentists.Illustration of forceps. Forceps is an instrument for grasping, holding firmly, or exerting traction upon objects especially for delicate operations as by surgeons, obstetricians, or dentists.Illustration of forceps. Forceps is an instrument for grasping, holding firmly, or exerting traction upon objects especially for delicate operations as by surgeons, obstetricians, or dentists.© Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2474956

2474956

Illustration of forceps. Forceps is an instrument for grasping,

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A metal chisel tool with a cutting edge at the end of a blade, used in dentistry.A metal chisel tool with a cutting edge at the end of a blade, used in dentistry.A metal chisel tool with a cutting edge at the end of a blade, used in dentistry.© Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2474955

2474955

A metal chisel tool with a cutting edge at the end of a blade,

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Dental cabinet illustration.Dental cabinet illustration.Dental cabinet illustration.© Stocktrek Images / BiosphotoJPG - RMNon exclusive sale
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2474954

2474954

Dental cabinet illustration.

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